Mountain Ranges

The province is characterized by low but serrated mountain ranges, most parts are close to the shoreline.  The highest mountain is Canlaon Volcano at a peak of 2,465 meters. It is an active volcano that marks the northern boundary of Negros Oriental and Negros Occidental.  The larger portion of Mount Canlaon is under the jurisdiction of Negros Occidental.  Next highest is Cuernos de Negros (Horns of Negros) in Valencia overlooking Dumaguete City with a height of 2,000 meters.  At the foot of Cuernos (locally called Talinis) is the geothermal plant that supplies electric power in the whole islands of Negros and Panay and the province of Cebu.  Another mountain peak rising 1,904 meters high in the central part of Negros is Mt. Tepasi.  Located in the southwestern part of Negros is the Tablas Plateau, primarily rolling hills covered with virgin tropical forest.

In the capital city of Dumaguete the contour of the land varies from level to gently sloping. The areas, which are gently sloping mostly in one general direction, can be found along the boundaries shared with the municipality of Valencia. From the coast up to three kilometers inland, the land is flat.

From the municipality of Bacong to the municipality of Siaton, more specifically two kilometers before Giligaon point, there is an average of seven kilometers from the coastline towards the center portion wherein the land is level to nearly level. From here the land rises rather gently for about two to three kilometers and abruptly up to the summit of Mt. Talinis, its highest point, where the municipalities of Valencia, Bacong, Dauin, Zamboanguita, and Siaton share a common border.

From Giligaon point until the Poblacion of Sta. Catalina, average flat land along the coastline is three kilometers wide. From there, the terrain rises abruptly and remains constant until it reaches the section where the municipal boundaries of the municipalities mentioned earlier meet where the highest peak is reached.

From the Poblacion of Sta. Catalina to the provincial boundary of Basay average width of flat land is 6.9 kilometers. The interior section is relatively flat, although the general description of the topography is rolling land sloping in many directions.

Canlaon City, Mabinay, Valencia and Pamplona are located in the interior part of the province.  While Canlaon City and Mabinay are plateaus, Valencia is basically hilly with its westernmost part steep to very steep. Some portions of Pamplona are flat. The average flatland from Sibulan to Amlan is 4.5 kilometers wide except for certain portions along San Jose where the land rises immediately from the shoreline. From there, the land starts to be steeply undulating and increases to very steeply sloping as it goes inward towards the center of the mountain range that cross the province from south to north. The lands from Tanjay up to the provincial boundary in Vallehermoso are nearly level to moderately rolling, having an average width of approximately 5.75 kilometers. From there the land turns from steep to very steep, except in some portions of Guihulngan where relatively level lands can be found.


Level lands consist of area with the slope category of 0-3%; undulating land, 3-8%; rolling lands; 8-15%, chilly area, 15-30%; and mountains, 30-65% or more.


Only lands of less than 18% slope are suitable for agricultural utilization.  In no case shall undulating, rolling and hilly areas be tilled without very strict measures to check excessive soil erosions.

Land Capabilities Classification

(By Slope Category & Percentage Distribution)















10.3 %







-40% up










Water Bodies


Rivers, creeks, springs, lakes and waterfalls abound in the province. An inventory of water bodies was conducted by the Provincial Planning and Development Office (PPDO), in which 25 rivers have been recorded, most of which are used for irrigation.


Part of the river systems in the province are 47 springs and 10 creeks.  The most number of rivers can be found in the southern part of the province while springs are found almost in every municipality. Springs are used as sources of reservoir and water tanks for domestic use.


Below is a presentation of rivers, springs and creeks by municipality/barangay with their corresponding discharge and usage.



One of the prominent lakes in the province and is considered the top tourist attraction is the Balinsasayao-Danao Twin Lakes, located 41.0 kilometers away from the Sibulan-San Jose highway.  Balinsasayao has a wider surface area compared to Lake Danao.  Other lakes existing are the Balanan Lake in Siaton, Lake Yagumyum and Lake Naiilig in Mt. Talinis, Dauin, among other lakes in other parts of the province.


There are nine famous waterfalls in the province, some of which are developed for tourism value, but no development action plan has yet been drawn up to harness their potential socio-economic value and cultutral significance.



There are 33 caves found in the province of Negros Oriental.  The Negros Oriental Provincial Tourism Office’s record reveals that most beautiful caves in Negros Oriental are found in Mabinay.  The Odloman Cave system, measuring 8,870 meters long, is known to be the second longest cave in the country.  Table 6.0 shows the caves with their corresponding length and